Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi or Mahatma Gandhi or Bapu – Father Of The Nation. A Short Biography


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948), also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was an Indian independence activist, lawyer, and political leader who played a crucial role in India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule.

Gandhi was born in Porbandar, Gujarat, India, and was educated in law in London. He then spent several years working as a lawyer in South Africa, where he became involved in the struggle against discrimination and oppression of Indians living there.

After returning to India in 1915, Gandhi began advocating for Indian independence through nonviolent civil disobedience and satyagraha, a philosophy of resistance through mass civil disobedience. He led many campaigns, including the famous Salt March in 1930, which led to the eventual end of British rule in India.

Gandhi was also known for his principles of ahimsa (nonviolence) and satya (truth), and his lifelong efforts to promote religious and ethnic harmony. He inspired many civil rights and freedom movements around the world, including Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States.

Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu nationalist in 1948, but his legacy continues to inspire people all over the world to work for justice, peace, and equality.


Other Names Of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi:


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was also known by several other names. Here are some of them:

  • Mahatma Gandhi: Mahatma means “great soul” in Sanskrit, and this title was given to Gandhi by his followers and admirers for his wisdom, compassion, and leadership.
  • Bapu: This is a term of endearment that means “father” in Hindi, and Gandhi was often referred to as Bapu by his followers.
  • Gandhiji: This is a common term of respect and affection for Gandhi in India, and is often used as a title of address.
  • The Father of the Nation: Gandhi is also known as the Father of the Nation in India, for his instrumental role in India’s struggle for independence.
  • The Mahatma: In addition to being called Mahatma Gandhi, he was also referred to simply as “The Mahatma” by many people, as a sign of their respect for him.


Nicknames Of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi:


Although Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was primarily known by his given name, he was also called by several nicknames throughout his life. Here are some of them:

  • Mohan: This was a shortened version of his first name that was used by family members and close friends.
  • Bapu: As mentioned earlier, this term of endearment meaning “father” in Hindi was also used as a nickname for Gandhi.
  • M.K.: This was a commonly used abbreviation of his full name, and was often used by the British colonial authorities during his time in India.
  • Mahatma: In addition to being a title of respect, “Mahatma” was also sometimes used as a nickname for Gandhi.
  • Gandhi: Finally, his last name “Gandhi” was sometimes used as a nickname or shorthand to refer to him.


Early Life:

He was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, India. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was the dewan (chief minister) of Porbandar; his mother, Putlibai, was a deeply religious woman who fasted regularly. The family belonged to the Modh Bania subcaste of Vaishyas, and Gandhi was the youngest of the couple’s four sons. In May 1883, at 13, he married 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji in an arranged marriage.  His wife’s name was Kasturbai Gokuldas Kapadia who belonged to a Gujrati Hindu Family. His Hindu faith profoundly influenced Gandhi’s early life. He was a shy, unassuming boy, and his parents hoped he would become a great lawyer or administrator like his father. Instead, Gandhi was drawn to the life of a Hindu ascetic or holy man. In 1888, he left India to study law in England. This was a time of great upheaval in Gandhi’s life, as he was forced to confront the reality of racism and prejudice against Indians.


Education in London

Mavji Dave Joshiji, a priest and a family friend advised him to study law in London. His first son was born in July 1888. His mother did not want to send him far away from his wife. He went to his mother and promised to abstain from meat, alcohol, and women. His brother, who was already a lawyer supported his plan, and on 4 September, he sailed from Bombay for London. His childhood shyness continued later; he joined a public speaking practice group and overcame his shyness sufficiently. Gandhi was profoundly affected by his experiences in England.


In Bar:

In June 1891, at the age of 22, Gandhi was called to the Bar. Then he left London for India. Where he learned that while he was in London, his mother died. He failed to establish his practice in Bombay because he was psychologically unable to cross-examine witnesses. In 1893 he was offered to work as a lawyer in South Africa. He accepted and, in April 1893, sailed for South Africa, where he spent 21 years. In 1914, in South Africa, “Mahatma” was firstly used for him, which means “great-souled, “venerable,” and now is known throughout the world. He developed his ethics and political views while staying in South Africa.


Struggle for Independence:

Gandhi returned to India in 1915 as a committed social reformer. He joined the Indian National Congress. He took leadership of Congress (a political party that advocated for Indian independence from British rule.) in 1920 and began to demand independence. He developed a unique form of nonviolent resistance called satyagraha, or soul force. A philosophy that would guide Gandhi throughout the rest of his life. He demanded Indian rights until the British Government declared Indian independence in 1930. Congress withdrew its support of the Raj when the ruler declared war on Germany in 1939 without consultation. The situation became worse until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in 1942. The British responded by imprisoning him and thousands of Congress leaders. Meanwhile, the Muslim League did cooperate with Britain and moved, against Gandhi’s opposition, to demands for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. In August 1947, the British Government partitioned the land between India and Pakistan.


Mahatma Gandhi and World War 1:

During the First World War, in April 1918, the ruler invited him to a war conference in Delhi. He agreed to recruit Indians for the war efforts. Gandhi advocated for India’s participation in the war effort, believing it would help the cause of Indian independence. He also worked to promote Indian unity and protect the rights of Indian soldiers fighting in the war. After the war, Gandhi continued his work for Indian independence, and he also worked to promote peace and understanding between Hindus and Muslims.


Role in independence:

Mahatma Gandhi is one of the most iconic and influential figures in Indian history. He is best known for leading the country’s non-violent resistance movement against British colonialism, which ultimately helped India gain its independence in 1947. He also played a crucial role in promoting religious harmony and combating poverty and social injustice.



Few people in history have been as influential and respected as Mahatma Gandhi. Often referred to as the “Father of the Nation,” the Origin of this title is traced back to a radio address (on Singapore radio) on 6 July 1944. He is also celebrated for his philosophy of nonviolent resistance, which he used significantly in his fight against injustice. In recognition of his accomplishments, Gandhi has been given many titles and honorary degrees, including the Nobel Peace Prize.


A global day that celebrates Gandhi:


2 October is the global day that celebrates the life and legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi led India to independence in 1947, after years of peaceful protests and civil disobedience. He is also celebrated for his philosophy of nonviolent resistance, which he used significantly in his fight against British colonialism. A national holiday is declared in India on Gandhi’s birthday. UNO general Assembly declared his birthday on 2 October, the international day of nonviolence.



Mahatma Gandhi, the world-renowned leader of India’s independence movement, was assassinated on 30 January 1948. Gandhi had just finished leading a prayer meeting when he was shot three times by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu radical. Godse was angered by Gandhi’s advocacy of religious tolerance and his efforts to improve relations between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi was taken to a nearby hospital but died shortly after arriving. His death sparked widespread violence across India, as Hindus and Muslims clashed in the streets. Millions of people attended Gandhi’s funeral, and his death is still mourned by many Indians today.




Mahatma Gandhi was one of the most famous leaders of the 20th century. Born in India in 1869, Gandhi was a lawyer by profession but soon became a leading political figure in the country’s struggle for independence from British rule. Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience helped lead India to independence in 1947, and his legacy continues to inspire people around the world today. Gandhi was also a key figure in the Indian movement for civil rights and social justice. He is celebrated today as one of the world’s most influential advocates for peace and nonviolence. Gandhi’s work on behalf of Congress and the Indian people earned him the title of Mahatma, or great soul. He is celebrated as the father of the Indian nation and is revered as one of the twentieth century’s great moral and spiritual leaders.



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