The Cellular Jail, Port Blair – Facts And History

The Cellular Jail, referred to as Kala Pani (“Black Water”), stands as a historic colonial prison situated in Port Blair, the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India. Built by the British colonial government between 1896 and 1906, this prison was used to exile political prisoners and freedom fighters during India’s struggle for independence.

The jail was designed as a panopticon—a central tower with radiating wings of cells, allowing minimal contact between inmates. The conditions in the Cellular Jail were harsh, with solitary confinement, forced labor, and inhumane treatment being prevalent. The inmates were subjected to grueling punishments and were often tortured.

Despite its grim history, the Cellular Jail stands as a symbol of the sacrifices made by freedom fighters. Today, it has been turned into a national memorial, serving as a reminder of the struggles and sacrifices made during India’s fight for independence. The jail complex has a museum that exhibits the history of the Andaman Islands and showcases the stories of the prisoners who were incarcerated there. Many visitors come to learn about this significant chapter in India’s history and pay homage to the brave souls who endured the hardships within its walls.

Other Names Of Cellular Jail, Port Blair:

The Cellular Jail in Port Blair, India, has been referred to by a few other names:

  • Kala Pani: This translates to “Black Water” in Hindi. The term was often used to denote the dread associated with the Cellular Jail due to its remote location and the severe conditions prisoners faced.
  • Cellular Jail, Andaman Islands: It is often referred to simply by its functional name, emphasizing its purpose as a prison on the Andaman Islands.
  • Ross Island Jail: Ross Island, situated nearby, also had a jail facility during the colonial era. Sometimes, people might refer to the Cellular Jail as part of Ross Island due to their proximity, although they are distinct locations.
  • Andaman Jail: A straightforward nickname referring to its location in the Andaman Islands.
  • Devil’s Island: This nickname draws parallels to the infamous French penal colony of Devil’s Island. It conveys the harsh and punitive nature of the Cellular Jail.
  • Indian Bastille: Likened to the Bastille in France, this nickname highlights the prison’s role in confining political prisoners during India’s struggle for independence.
  • Saza-e-Kalapani: A Hindi phrase that translates to “Punishment of the Black Water,” reflecting the dreaded and punitive aspects associated with the jail.

These nicknames reflect the fearful, punitive, and historically significant aspects of the Cellular Jail in Port Blair.

How To Reach Cellular Jail, Port Blair:

Reaching the Cellular Jail in Port Blair involves travel to the Andaman Islands and then heading to the specific location in Port Blair.

By Air:
Flight: The most common way to reach Port Blair is by air. Veer Savarkar International Airport in Port Blair is well-connected to major cities like Chennai, Kolkata, and Delhi. Airlines operate regular flights to the Andaman Islands from these cities.

By Sea:
Ferry/Cruise: Some people prefer to travel by sea. Regular passenger ships and ferries connect Port Blair to Chennai, Kolkata, and other nearby islands.

Local Transport:
From the Airport: Once you land at Veer Savarkar International Airport, you can hire a taxi or use pre-paid taxi services available at the airport to reach Port Blair.
From the Port: If arriving by ferry or cruise, taxis and auto-rickshaws are available at the port for transportation.

To the Cellular Jail:
The Cellular Jail is located in Port Blair itself. Once in Port Blair, you can easily hire a taxi, auto-rickshaw, or use local buses to reach the jail.
It’s a well-known landmark, so most locals or drivers will be familiar with its location.

Additional Tips:
It’s recommended to check the transportation options and schedules in advance, especially if you’re planning to travel by sea, as timings may vary.
Plan your visit to the Cellular Jail considering its visiting hours, which are usually during the daytime.
Always verify current travel information, schedules, and transportation options beforehand, as they might have changed since my last update.

When To Keep In Mind When Visiting Cellular Jail, Port Blair:

When planning a visit to the Cellular Jail in Port Blair, consider the following aspects:

  • Timings: Opening Hours: The Cellular Jail is usually open to visitors from morning till evening. Exact timings may vary, so it’s best to confirm the visiting hours before your visit.
    Avoiding Crowds: Mornings tend to be less crowded, offering a quieter and more immersive experience.
  • Weather:
    Season: The Andaman Islands have a tropical climate, with November to April being the peak tourist season due to milder weather and calmer seas.
    Monsoons: May to September brings monsoon season, which might affect travel plans due to heavy rains and choppy seas.
  • Special Events: Festivals: Consider local festivals or events. Sometimes, these might enhance your experience, but they can also lead to more crowds or limited access.
  • Pre-Booking and Entry: Tickets: Check if you need to book tickets in advance or if there are any restrictions on the number of visitors allowed at a time.
    Security Checks: Like many historic sites, there might be security checks or restrictions on certain items, so be prepared for that.
  • Plan for the Museum and Information: The Cellular Jail houses a museum that narrates its history. Allocate time to explore the museum and gather information about the jail’s significance.

Other Considerations:

  • Photography: Confirm the rules regarding photography within the premises.
  • Comfortable Attire: Wear comfortable clothing and shoes suitable for walking, as you might spend considerable time exploring the complex.
  • Cultural Sensitivity: Approach the site with respect for its historical significance and the sacrifices made by the prisoners. Silence and reverence are often observed out of respect for those who suffered there.

Considering these factors will help you make the most of your visit to the Cellular Jail, ensuring a meaningful and enjoyable experience while respecting the site’s historical significance.

History Of Cellular Jail, Port Blair:

The Cellular Jail in Port Blair holds a significant place in India’s history, particularly during its struggle for independence from British colonial rule.

  • Construction: Built between 1896 and 1906 by the British colonial government, the Cellular Jail was designed to isolate and incarcerate political prisoners, particularly those involved in India’s fight for independence.
  • Purpose and Structure: The jail’s design was unique, resembling a panopticon with a central tower and seven wings radiating from it. This structure allowed minimal communication between prisoners and ensured strict surveillance.
  • Prisoners and Conditions: Many notable freedom fighters, activists, and revolutionaries, including Batukeshwar Dutt, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, and others, were imprisoned in the Cellular Jail. They were subjected to inhumane conditions, solitary confinement, forced labor, and brutal treatment by the jail authorities.
  • Torture and Hardships: Prisoners endured harsh punishments and were subjected to physical and psychological torture. The infamous “kalapani” punishment, which involved isolation and hard labor, was inflicted on inmates.
  • Role in India’s Independence Movement: Despite the extreme hardships, the prisoners showed remarkable resilience and solidarity. Their suffering and sacrifices contributed significantly to the awakening of national consciousness and the fight for India’s independence.
  • Post-Independence: After India gained independence in 1947, the Cellular Jail ceased to function as a prison. It was declared a national monument and transformed into a memorial to honor the freedom fighters who suffered there.
  • Present-Day Significance: Today, the Cellular Jail stands as a symbol of India’s struggle for freedom. It has been converted into a museum and a national memorial, attracting visitors from around the world who come to learn about this poignant chapter in Indian history.

The Cellular Jail’s history serves as a reminder of the sacrifices made by countless individuals who fought bravely for India’s independence and the resilience of the human spirit in the face of adversity.

Prisoners Of Cellular Jail:

The Cellular Jail in Port Blair housed numerous prisoners, many of whom were freedom fighters and activists involved in India’s struggle for independence. Here are some notable individuals who were incarcerated in the Cellular Jail:

  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar: A prominent freedom fighter, nationalist, and writer, Savarkar was imprisoned for his revolutionary activities against British rule. His time in Cellular Jail is well-documented, and he endured intense hardships during his incarceration.
  • Batukeshwar Dutt: He was involved in the historic Central Legislative Assembly bombing in 1929 along with Bhagat Singh. Dutt spent considerable time in Cellular Jail for his participation in the freedom movement.
  • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi: A scholar and poet, Khairabadi was a prominent figure in the 1857 Indian Rebellion against the British East India Company. He was later arrested and imprisoned in Cellular Jail.
  • Diwan Singh Kalepani: A revolutionary who participated in various acts against British rule, Diwan Singh spent time in Cellular Jail for his involvement in the freedom movement.
  • Barindra Kumar Ghosh: A revolutionary and younger brother of freedom fighter Aurobindo Ghosh, Barindra Kumar was imprisoned in Cellular Jail for his anti-colonial activities.

These are just a few among the many individuals who endured the harsh conditions of the Cellular Jail for their role in India’s struggle for independence. Their sacrifices and resilience in the face of adversity have been commemorated and serve as a testament to their dedication to the cause of freedom.

Azad Hind Fauj And Cellular Jail:

The Azad Hind Fauj, or the Indian National Army (INA), had a historical connection to the Cellular Jail in Port Blair during World War II. Led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, the INA aimed to free India from British rule and played a significant role in the country’s fight for independence.

During the war, when the Japanese forces occupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Cellular Jail was repurposed by the Japanese as a prison for British and Indian prisoners of war (POWs), including officers and soldiers of the British Indian Army.

Under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose, the Azad Hind Fauj collaborated with the Japanese and established the Provisional Government of Free India in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Cellular Jail, which had a symbolic significance due to its history as a colonial prison, became a site where the INA prisoners of war were housed.

The prisoners held by the Japanese in the Cellular Jail were not subjected to the same brutal treatment as the political prisoners held by the British earlier. The INA’s association with the Cellular Jail during this period holds historical significance as it marks a phase when the jail was repurposed to hold prisoners who were part of a movement aiming to overthrow British rule in India.

Interesting Facts About The Cellular Jail:

The Cellular Jail in Port Blair is not only historically significant but also holds some intriguing facts:

  • Unique Architecture: The seven wings radiating from a central tower were designed to minimize communication between prisoners. This unique structure earned it the name “Cellular Jail.”
  • Solitary Confinement Cells: The jail had 698 cells, each designed for solitary confinement. The isolation and minimalistic design aimed to break the spirit of the prisoners.
  • Symbolic Design Features: The jail’s design and construction were symbolic. The seven wings represented the spokes of a bicycle wheel, symbolizing the British control over India.
  • Notable Prisoners: The Cellular Jail housed many prominent freedom fighters, including Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Batukeshwar Dutt, and others who played crucial roles in India’s fight for independence.
  • Harsh Conditions: Prisoners endured grueling hardships, forced labor, meager rations, and harsh punishments. The jail’s reputation for cruelty led to the term “kala pani,” signifying a place of exile and dread.
  • Redevelopment into a Memorial: After India gained independence, the Cellular Jail was declared a national monument and transformed into a memorial and museum to honor the sacrifices of the freedom fighters.
  • Sound and Light Show: The jail hosts a captivating Sound and Light Show that narrates its history, showcasing the struggles and sacrifices of the prisoners. It’s a popular attraction for visitors.
  • Historical Exhibits: The museum within the jail complex displays artifacts, photographs, and exhibits that depict the history of the Andaman Islands and the stories of the inmates.
  • Spiritual Center: Despite the oppressive atmosphere, some prisoners found solace in artistic and spiritual pursuits, leading to the creation of poems, paintings, and writings that survived the harsh conditions.
  • Symbol of Resilience: The Cellular Jail stands as a testament to the resilience and sacrifices of those who fought against colonial rule, symbolizing the indomitable spirit of the Indian independence movement.


The Cellular Jail in Port Blair stands as more than just a physical structure; it embodies a significant chapter in India’s history—a testament to the relentless spirit and sacrifices of those who fought against colonial rule. Its seven wings, designed for solitary confinement, echo the isolation and brutality faced by the inmates, many of whom were valiant freedom fighters.

Despite the harsh conditions, the jail became a crucible for resilience, where prisoners, through their endurance, emerged as symbols of unwavering determination. Their stories of bravery and sacrifice have been immortalized within its walls, inspiring generations to honor their legacy.

Today, transformed into a national memorial and museum, the Cellular Jail educates visitors about the struggles and sacrifices made during India’s quest for independence. It serves as a reminder of the price paid for freedom and the enduring spirit that continues to resonate through the corridors of history.

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