Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh – Facts And History

 

Varanasi, also known as Kashi, is a city in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, with a history dating back over 3,000 years.

Varanasi is considered to be a spiritual and cultural center for Hindus, and it is famous for its ghats, or series of steps leading down to the banks of the River Ganges. The ghats are used for religious rituals and ceremonies, and many people come to Varanasi to bathe in the river and perform funerary rites for their loved ones.

The city is also known for its temples and shrines, including the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, which is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is one of the most important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. Other notable temples include the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple and the Durga Temple.

Varanasi is also a center for music, dance, and the arts. The city is home to the Benares Gharana, a school of classical music that has produced many famous musicians, and it is also known for its silk weaving and other handicrafts.

Overall, Varanasi is a fascinating and important city with a rich history and culture, and it continues to be a significant spiritual and cultural center for people all over India and beyond.

 

Other Names Of Varanasi:

 

Varanasi is known by several other names in addition to its official name. Here are some of them:

  1. Kashi: This is one of the most commonly used names for Varanasi, and it comes from the ancient Sanskrit word “Kas” which means to shine. Kashi is considered to be a holy city by Hindus, and it is believed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.
  2. Benares: This name is derived from the Sanskrit word “Varanasi”, and it is the anglicized version of the name. It is commonly used by English speakers to refer to the city.
  3. Avimukta: This name means “never forsaken by Shiva”, and it is believed to be one of the many names given to Varanasi by Lord Shiva himself.
  4. Anandavana: This name means “forest of bliss”, and it is another name for Varanasi that is mentioned in ancient Hindu texts.
  5. Rudravasa: This name means “the abode of Rudra”, and it refers to Lord Shiva who is also known as Rudra.
  6. Mahasmasana: This name means “the great cremation ground”, and it refers to the belief that dying in Varanasi and being cremated on the banks of the Ganges river brings moksha which means liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

These are just a few of the many names that Varanasi is known by, and they reflect the city’s rich history and cultural significance.

 

Nicknames Of Varanasi:

 

Varanasi has a few popular nicknames that are used by locals and visitors alike. Here are some of them:

  1. City of Temples: This nickname is a reflection of the many temples and shrines that are found throughout Varanasi. The city is home to numerous ancient and famous temples, including the Kashi Vishwanath Temple and the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple.
  2. Spiritual Capital of India: Varanasi is considered to be one of the most important spiritual and cultural centers in India. It is a city that is deeply rooted in Hinduism, and it attracts many visitors who come to bathe in the holy waters of the Ganges river and seek spiritual enlightenment.
  3. Oldest Living City: Varanasi is believed to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, with a history that dates back over 3,000 years. This nickname highlights the city’s rich cultural heritage and ancient history.
  4. City of Ghats: The ghats, or series of steps leading down to the banks of the Ganges river, are one of the most iconic features of Varanasi. There are over 80 ghats in the city of Varanasi, each having its own significance and history.
  5. Land of Sages and Scholars: Varanasi has a long history of being a center for education and learning. Many great sages and scholars have lived and taught in the city over the centuries, and it continues to be an important center for learning and intellectual pursuit.

These nicknames reflect the various aspects of Varanasi’s rich culture, history, and spirituality, and they help to capture the essence of this fascinating city.

 

Historical Importance Of Varanasi:

 

Varanasi has a long and rich history that stretches back over 3,000 years, and the city has played an important role in the cultural, religious, and political life of India throughout this time. Here are some of the key historical events and figures associated with Varanasi:

  1. Ancient Civilization: Varanasi is believed to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, with a history that dates back to the 11th century BCE. The city was an important center of trade and commerce in ancient India, and it was also a hub of religious and cultural activity.
  2. Birthplace of Buddhism: Varanasi is closely associated with the life and teachings of the Buddha, who gave his first sermon at Sarnath, a nearby town, after attaining enlightenment in Bodh Gaya. Sarnath is just a few miles away from Varanasi, and it was here that the Buddha delivered his first sermon to a group of disciples.
  3. Center of Hinduism: Varanasi is considered to be one of the holiest cities in Hinduism, and it is a major center of pilgrimage for Hindus from all over India and the world. The city is home to many ancient temples and shrines, including the Kashi Vishwanath Temple and the Durga Temple.
  4. Muslim Rule: Varanasi was also an important center of Muslim culture and learning during the medieval period, and it was ruled by various Muslim dynasties over the centuries. The city’s rich cultural heritage and history were preserved and enriched by these rulers.
  5. British Colonial Rule: Varanasi was a major center of the Indian independence movement during the British colonial period, and it was the site of many important protests and rallies. The city played a significant role in the struggle for Indian independence.

Overall, Varanasi’s rich history and cultural heritage have made it an important city in India and the world, and it continues to be a center of spiritual, cultural, and intellectual life.

 

15 Interesting facts About Varanasi:

 

  1. Varanasi is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, with a history that dates back over 3,000 years.
  2. The city is located on the banks of the holy river Ganges, which is considered to be the most sacred river in Hinduism.
  3. Varanasi has over 80 ghats, or series of steps leading down to the Ganges river, each with its own significance and history.
  4. The Kashi Vishwanath Temple, one of the most famous temples in India, is located in Varanasi. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is considered to be one of the 12 Jyotirlingas, or sacred lingams of Lord Shiva.
  5. Varanasi is known for its silk saris, which are highly prized for their intricate designs and high quality.
  6. The city is home to the Banaras Hindu University, one of the largest and most prestigious universities in India.
  7. Varanasi is closely associated with the life and teachings of the Buddha, and the nearby town of Sarnath is the site where he delivered his first sermon after attaining enlightenment.
  8. Varanasi is considered to be one of the holiest cities in Hinduism, and it is believed that dying in Varanasi and being cremated on the banks of the Ganges river brings moksha which means liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
  9. The city is also known for its rich cultural heritage, including music, dance, and the performing arts.
  10. Varanasi is home to many ashrams and spiritual centers, where people come to seek spiritual guidance and enlightenment.
  11. The city has a unique cuisine that includes a variety of vegetarian dishes, such as chaat, kachori, and lassi.
  12. Varanasi is also known for its traditional handicrafts, including pottery, woodcarving, and brassware.
  13. The city has a vibrant nightlife, with many restaurants, cafes, and bars staying open late into the night.
  14. Varanasi is home to the Ramnagar Fort, a historic fort that has been home to the Maharaja of Varanasi for over 400 years.
  15. The city has a rich literary tradition, with many famous writers and poets having lived and worked in Varanasi over the centuries, including Kabir, Tulsidas, and Ravidas.

 

15 Places To Visit In Varanasi:

 

  1. Kashi Vishwanath Temple: This ancient temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is one of the most famous temples in India. It is located in the heart of Varanasi and is a must-visit for anyone traveling to the city.
  2. Dashashwamedh Ghat: This is one of the most famous ghats in Varanasi and is known for its daily Ganga Aarti ceremony, which is a beautiful ritual performed by Hindu priests on the banks of the river Ganges.
  3. Sarnath: This ancient Buddhist site is located just a few miles away from Varanasi and is the place where the Buddha gave his first sermon after attaining enlightenment. It is home to many beautiful temples and stupas, including the Dhamek Stupa and the Mulagandha Kuti Vihar.
  4. Manikarnika Ghat: This is one of the oldest and most sacred ghats in Varanasi and is known for its cremation ceremonies and it is believed that anyone who is cremated here will attain moksha which means liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
  5. Assi Ghat: This ghat is located at the confluence of the Ganges and Assi rivers and is a popular spot for taking a boat ride on the river. It is also known for its lively market and street food stalls.
  6. Banaras Hindu University: This prestigious university is one of the largest in India and is known for its beautiful campus and historic buildings, including the Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum and the Vishwanath Temple.
  7. Ramnagar Fort: This historic fort is located on the banks of the Ganges river and is home to the Maharaja of Varanasi. It is known for its beautiful architecture and its collection of vintage cars, including a Rolls-Royce and a Mercedes-Benz.
  8. Bharat Mata Temple: This unique temple is dedicated to Mother India and is home to a beautiful map of India carved out of marble.
  9. Tulsi Manas Temple: This beautiful temple is dedicated to Lord Rama and is known for its stunning murals depicting scenes from the Ramayana.
  10. Alamgir Mosque: This beautiful mosque was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and is located on the banks of the Ganges river. It is known for its stunning architecture and beautiful views of the river.
  11. Banaras Ghats: There are over 80 ghats in Varanasi, each with its own significance and history. Some of the most famous include Manikarnika Ghat, Harishchandra Ghat, and Tulsi Ghat.
  12. Chunar Fort: This historic fort is located just outside of Varanasi and is known for its beautiful architecture and stunning views of the Ganges river.
  13. Durga Temple: This ancient temple is dedicated to the goddess Durga and is known for its beautiful architecture and intricate carvings.
  14. Kedar Ghat: This ghat is known for its beautiful architecture and is a popular spot for taking a boat ride on the river.
  15. Monkey Temple: This unique temple is located in the Sarnath area of Varanasi and is home to hundreds of monkeys and it is known for its beautiful architecture and its peaceful atmosphere.

 

Art And Culture In Varanasi:

 

Varanasi, also known as Kashi, is a city with a rich cultural heritage and a long history of artistic traditions. Here are some of the highlights of art and culture in Varanasi:

  1. Music: Varanasi is famous for its classical music, with many famous musicians and music schools located in the city. The city is known for its vibrant music scene, with performances of classical music, devotional music, and folk music taking place throughout the year.
  2. Dance: Varanasi is also known for its traditional dance forms, including Kathak, Bharatanatyam, and Kuchipudi. There are many dance schools in the city where students can learn these traditional dance styles.
  3. Handicrafts: Varanasi is famous for its handicrafts, including silk weaving, brass work, and wood carving. The city is known for its intricate designs and skilled artisans who produce beautiful works of art.
  4. Festivals: Varanasi is known for its many festivals, including Diwali, Holi, and Durga Puja and the city comes alive with colorful decorations, music, and dance performances.
  5. Literature: Varanasi has a rich literary tradition, with many famous writers and poets associated with the city. The city has a number of libraries and bookstores where visitors can explore the works of these literary figures.
  6. Spiritual traditions: Varanasi is known as a center of spirituality and has a long history of spiritual traditions, including yoga and meditation. Many visitors come to Varanasi to explore these spiritual traditions and to visit the city’s many temples and ashrams.

Overall, Varanasi is a city with a rich and vibrant cultural heritage, and visitors to the city can experience a wide range of artistic and cultural traditions.

 

Taste And Cuisines Of Varanasi:

Varanasi has a rich culinary tradition, with a wide variety of delicious dishes to try. Here are some of the highlights of the taste and cuisine of Varanasi:

  1. Chaat: Varanasi is famous for its chaat, a popular street food that consists of crispy fried dough balls filled with a mixture of spiced potatoes, chickpeas, and chutney.
  2. Lassi: This refreshing drink made from yogurt and sugar is a popular beverage in Varanasi. It is often served with a sprinkle of cardamom or other spices.
  3. Kachori: This deep-fried pastry filled with spiced lentils or potatoes is a popular breakfast food in Varanasi.
  4. Tamatar Chaat: This unique dish consists of boiled potatoes, onions, and tomatoes mixed with tamarind chutney and topped with sev, a crunchy Indian snack.
  5. Banarasi Paan: This popular snack is a betel leaf filled with a mixture of sweet and savory ingredients, including nuts, spices, and sweeteners.
  6. Thandai: This sweet drink made from milk, nuts, and spices is a popular beverage during Holi, the Hindu festival of colors.
  7. Malaiyo: This unique dessert is made from milk and flavored with saffron, cardamom, and pistachios and it is traditionally served during the winter months.
  8. Baati Chokha: This traditional dish consists of roasted wheat dumplings (baati) served with a spicy vegetable mash (chokha) made from roasted eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes.
  9. Kheer: This sweet rice pudding is a popular dessert in Varanasi, flavored with cardamom and topped with nuts and raisins.

Overall, the taste and cuisine of Varanasi are diverse and flavorful, with a mix of sweet and savory dishes that are sure to delight any food lover.

 

10 Hotels To Stay In Varanasi:

 

  1. Taj Nadesar Palace: This luxurious palace hotel is located in the heart of Varanasi and features beautiful rooms, a swimming pool, and a spa.
  2. BrijRama Palace: This heritage hotel is located on the banks of the Ganges and features stunning views of the river. The hotel also has a rooftop restaurant and a spa.
  3. Suryauday Haveli: This beautiful haveli-style hotel is located on the banks of the Ganges and features spacious rooms, a rooftop terrace, and a restaurant.
  4. The Gateway Hotel Ganges: This elegant hotel is located near the Varanasi Cantt railway station and features comfortable rooms, a swimming pool, and a restaurant.
  5. Hotel Surya: This modern hotel is located in the heart of Varanasi and features comfortable rooms, a rooftop terrace, and a restaurant.
  6. Hotel Alka: This budget-friendly hotel is located on the banks of the Ganges and features comfortable rooms, a rooftop restaurant, and stunning views of the river.
  7. Guleria Kothi: This beautiful heritage hotel is located in the heart of Varanasi and features spacious rooms, a rooftop terrace, and a restaurant.
  8. The Amayaa: This modern hotel is located near the Varanasi Cantt railway station and features comfortable rooms, a swimming pool, and a restaurant.
  9. Hotel Buddha: This budget-friendly hotel is located in the heart of Varanasi and features comfortable rooms, a rooftop restaurant, and stunning views of the city.
  10. Hotel Varuna: This elegant hotel is located near the Varanasi Cantt railway station and features comfortable rooms, a swimming pool, and a restaurant.

 

10 Dine-In Restaurants In Varanasi:

 

  1. Pizzeria Vaatika Cafe: This restaurant offers a variety of pizzas, pastas, and other Italian dishes, as well as a selection of teas and desserts and the outdoor seating area provides a peaceful ambiance.
  2. Kashi Chat Bhandar: This popular street food joint in Varanasi serves a range of chaat items, including pani puri, dahi puri, and aloo tikki chaat and it’s a must-visit for chaat lovers.
  3. Brown Bread Bakery: This café offers a range of sandwiches, pizzas, cakes, and desserts, as well as coffee and other beverages and the outdoor seating area is a great place to relax and unwind.
  4. Bana Lassi: This popular lassi joint serves thick and creamy lassis in various flavors, including mango, banana, and chocolate and the lassis are served in earthen pots, adding to the charm of the place.
  5. El Parador: This restaurant serves authentic Mexican cuisine, including burritos, tacos, and nachos and the colorful décor and lively atmosphere make it a fun place to dine.
  6. Shree Cafe: This café offers a range of breakfast items, including parathas, sandwiches, and pancakes, as well as coffee and other beverages and the outdoor seating area provides a peaceful ambiance.
  7. Ksheer Sagar: This restaurant offers a range of North Indian dishes, including thalis, biryanis, and curries and the décor is simple but elegant, and the food is delicious.
  8. Varanasi Kitchen: This restaurant serves a range of North Indian and Chinese dishes, as well as a selection of sweets and desserts and the colorful décor and friendly staff make it a great place to dine.
  9. Dum Biryani House: This restaurant specializes in biryanis, with a range of vegetarian and non-vegetarian options and the biryanis are cooked in dum style, which involves slow-cooking the rice and meat together in a sealed pot to infuse the flavors.
  10. Baati Chokha: This restaurant serves traditional Rajasthani dishes, including baati chokha, which consists of roasted wheat dumplings served with a spicy vegetable mash and the rustic décor and authentic food make it a must-visit for foodies.

 

Places Of Worship In Varanasi:

 

  1. Kashi Vishwanath Temple: This famous Hindu temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is one of the most sacred places in Varanasi and the temple is located near the banks of the Ganges and is visited by thousands of pilgrims every year.
  2. Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple: This temple is dedicated to Lord Hanuman and is a popular place of worship for Hindus and the temple is known for its peaceful ambiance and is visited by both locals and tourists.
  3. Durga Temple: This temple is dedicated to Goddess Durga and is one of the oldest temples in Varanasi and the temple is known for its intricate carvings and beautiful architecture.
  4. Tulsi Manas Temple: This temple is dedicated to Lord Rama and is located near the Durga Temple. The walls of the temple are inscribed with verses from the Ramayana, making it a popular destination for devotees of Lord Rama.
  5. New Vishwanath Temple: This temple is a modern replica of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple and is located near the Banaras Hindu University and the temple is known for its beautiful architecture and peaceful ambiance.
  6. Kedareshwar Temple: This temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is located near the Kedar Ghat and is known for its intricate carvings and beautiful architecture.
  7. Kaal Bhairav Temple: This temple is dedicated to Lord Kaal Bhairav, a fierce form of Lord Shiva. The temple is located near the Vishwanath Temple and is known for its unique architecture.
  8. Alamgir Mosque: This mosque is located near the Panchganga Ghat and is one of the most famous mosques in Varanasi. The mosque is known for its beautiful architecture and is visited by both Muslims and non-Muslims.
  9. St. Mary’s Church: This church is located near the Cantonment area in Varanasi and is one of the oldest churches in the city. The church is known for its beautiful architecture and peaceful ambiance.
  10. Buddhist Temples: Varanasi is also home to several Buddhist temples, including the Sarnath Temple and the Thai Temple. These temples are visited by Buddhist pilgrims from around the world and are known for their peaceful ambiance and beautiful architecture.

 

10 Schools In Varanasi:

 

  1. Delhi Public School Varanasi: This is a co-educational school affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and it offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.
  2. The Doon School, Varanasi: This is an all-boys boarding school affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) board. It is located in the heart of Varanasi and offers classes from 6th to 12th grade.
  3. Sunbeam School Varuna: This is a co-educational school affiliated with the CBSE board. It offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade and is located in Varuna, a suburb of Varanasi.
  4. Holy Cross School: This is a Catholic school for girls affiliated with the ICSE board. It is located in the Cantonment area of Varanasi and offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.
  5. Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 1, Varanasi: This is a co-educational school affiliated with the CBSE board. It is located in the Cantt area of Varanasi and offers classes from 1st to 12th grade.
  6. The Heritage School, Varanasi: This is a co-educational school affiliated with the CBSE board. It is located in the Rajatalab area of Varanasi and offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.
  7. St. John’s School: This is a Catholic school for boys affiliated with the ICSE board. It is located in the Cantonment area of Varanasi and offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.
  8. Varanasi Public School: This is a co-educational school affiliated with the CBSE board. It is located in the Rohania area of Varanasi and offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.
  9. Queens’ College: This is a girls’ school affiliated with the ICSE board. It is located in the Cantonment area of Varanasi and offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.
  10. DAV Public School, Varanasi: This is a co-educational school affiliated with the CBSE board. It is located in the Shivpur area of Varanasi and offers classes from kindergarten to 12th grade.

 

10 Colleges In Varanasi:

 

  1. Banaras Hindu University (BHU): BHU is a public central university located in Varanasi. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in various fields such as arts, science, engineering, medicine, management, and law.
  2. Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS), BHU: IMS is a medical college and hospital located within the BHU campus. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in medicine and surgery.
  3. Faculty of Law, BHU: This is a law school within BHU that offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in law.
  4. Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies (CIHTS): CIHTS is a deemed university located in Varanasi. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Tibetan language, literature, and Buddhist studies.
  5. Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith (MGKVP): MGKVP is a public university located in Varanasi. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in various fields such as arts, science, commerce, management, education, and law.
  6. Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya (SSVV): SSVV is a state university located in Varanasi. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in various fields such as Sanskrit, Vedic studies, Ayurveda, and astrology.
  7. Udai Pratap Autonomous College: This is an autonomous college affiliated with MGKVP. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in various fields such as arts, science, commerce, and education.
  8. Harishchandra Postgraduate College: This is a college affiliated with MGKVP. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in various fields such as arts, science, and commerce.
  9. Vasanta College for Women: This is a women’s college affiliated with BHU. It offers undergraduate courses in various fields such as arts, science, and commerce.
  10. Institute of Technology, BHU: This is an engineering college within the BHU campus. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in various fields such as engineering, technology, and applied sciences.

 

Trade And Commerce In Varanasi:

 

Varanasi has been an important center for trade and commerce since ancient times. It is known for its handloom products, especially Banarasi silk sarees, which are famous all over the world.

The city has a vibrant market culture, with numerous markets and bazaars selling a wide range of products. Some of the popular markets in Varanasi include:

  1. Vishwanath Lane: This market is located near the famous Kashi Vishwanath Temple and is known for its wide range of religious items and souvenirs.
  2. Thatheri Bazaar: This market is known for its brass and copper items such as lamps, utensils, and decorative pieces.
  3. Godowlia Market: This market is located near the Dashashwamedh Ghat and is known for its wide range of products including clothes, jewelry, and souvenirs.
  4. Chowk: This market is located in the heart of the city and is known for its handloom products such as Banarasi silk sarees and brocades.

 

Apart from the traditional markets, Varanasi has also seen the growth of modern shopping malls and complexes in recent years. Some of the popular shopping destinations in Varanasi include IP Mall, JHV Mall, and PDR Mall.

Apart from handloom products, Varanasi is also known for its paan (a preparation of betel leaf), which is a popular mouth freshener in India. The city has numerous paan shops, some of which have been in business for generations.

In recent years, Varanasi has also emerged as an important center for education, with numerous colleges and universities offering courses in various fields. This has led to the growth of several businesses related to education, such as coaching centers and bookstores.

 

Conclusion:

 

In conclusion, Varanasi is a city of great cultural and historical significance, located on the banks of the river Ganges in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city is famous for its ancient temples, ghats, and ashrams, and is considered one of the holiest cities in India. Varanasi is also known for its handloom products, especially Banarasi silk sarees, and has a vibrant market culture. The city is home to several prestigious colleges and universities, and has emerged as an important center for education. Overall, Varanasi is a fascinating destination that offers a unique blend of spirituality, culture, and commerce.

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