Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, located in the northernmost part of the territory, at an elevation of 1,600 meters (5,200 ft). The city experiences cold winters, with temperatures often falling below freezing point. Snowfall is also common in Jammu, which usually occurs in the months of December and January. Jammu is home to several tourist attractions, including the popular Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine. The city is also an important transit point for pilgrims travelling to the Kashmir Valley.
History of Jammu:
Tarikh-i-Azmi is a book written by the 16th century historian, Muhammad Azam Khan. In it, he writes that Jammu came into existence around 900 CE. This is one of the earliest written records of the city, and it provides an essential glimpse into its history.
Jammu is thought to have been founded by Raja Jambu Lochan, who was the son of Raja Jamboo. He is said to have built a fort here, which later became the city. Over the centuries, Jammu has been ruled by several different dynasties, including the Mughals and the Sikhs. Today, it is the capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Jammu state under Raja Dhruv Dev of the Jamuwal (Jamwal) family asserted its supremacy among all the Dugar states after the decline of Mughal power in the 18th century. Raja Dhruv Dev was a brave and able ruler who expanded the Jammu state by conquest and diplomacy. He defeated the Raja of Srinagar and annexed his kingdom. He also concluded a treaty with the Gurkhas, which resulted in the cession of some Gurkha territories to Jammu. Raja Dhruv Dev’s reign was marked by peace and prosperity, and he is considered one of the greatest rulers of the Jammu state.
How to Reach Jammu:
Jammu is well-connected to other parts of India by air, rail, and road. Here are the ways to reach Jammu:
- By Air: Jammu has its own airport, the Jammu Civil Enclave, which is located about 8 km from the city center. The airport is well-connected to major cities in India like Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore, with regular flights operated by several airlines.
- By Rail: Jammu is a major railway junction and is well-connected to other parts of India by train. There are regular trains from cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai that connect to Jammu. The Jammu Tawi railway station is the main station in the city and is located about 5 km from the city center.
- By Road: Jammu is well-connected to other parts of India by road. National Highway 44, which connects Srinagar to Kanyakumari, passes through Jammu. There are regular buses and taxis that connect Jammu to other parts of the state and the country.
Once you reach Jammu, you can hire taxis, buses or take public transport to explore the city and its surrounding areas.
Climate of Jammu:
Jammu has a subtropical climate, with hot summers and cool winters. The city experiences three major seasons – summer, monsoon, and winter.
Summer (April to June): The summer season in Jammu is hot and dry, with temperatures ranging from 25°C to 40°C. The hottest months are May and June, with temperatures often crossing 40°C. Light cotton clothes are recommended during this time.
Monsoon (July to September): Jammu receives moderate to heavy rainfall during the monsoon season. The temperature during this season ranges from 22°C to 35°C. Rainfall is heaviest in August, and humidity levels can be high.
Winter (October to March): The winter season in Jammu is cool and dry, with temperatures ranging from 5°C to 20°C. December and January are the coldest months, with temperatures often dropping below 5°C. Warm clothes are recommended during this time.
The best time to visit Jammu is from October to March, when the weather is cool and pleasant. The summer months, from April to June, can be hot and humid, while the monsoon season, from July to September, can be wet and uncomfortable.
Railway station, in Jammu, called Jammu Tawi (station code JAT). It is well connected with major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, etc. It is the largest and busiest railway station in Jammu and Kashmir. It is also an important stop for the Shatabdi Express and the Rajdhani Express. The station has all the modern facilities like a computerized reservation system, waiting rooms, refreshment rooms, etc.
Economy of Jammu:
Jammu’s economy is primarily based on agriculture, tourism, and manufacturing. The region is known for its fertile agricultural lands, producing crops such as wheat, rice, and maize, as well as horticultural products like apples, pears, and walnuts. The manufacturing sector in Jammu is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, producing a range of products such as textiles, leather goods, and food items.
Tourism is another major contributor to the economy of Jammu, with several historical and religious sites attracting visitors from across India and the world. The region is known for its natural beauty, with several parks, gardens, and wildlife reserves located in and around Jammu. The city is also a popular destination for adventure sports such as trekking, mountaineering, and rafting.
The government of Jammu and Kashmir has taken several steps to promote the region’s economy, including the establishment of industrial estates and the promotion of tourism. The region has also seen significant investment in infrastructure, including the construction of new highways and the expansion of the Jammu airport. Overall, Jammu’s economy is diverse and growing, with several opportunities for investment and development.
Visiting places in Jammu:
It is the winter capital of the state and the seat of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court. Jammu is in the Jammu Division of the state. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage site, with the nearby Mata Vaishno Devi shrine. Jammu is also home to the Amar Mahal Palace Museum and the Bahu Fort.
Jammu is a popular tourist destination, due to its location in the Himalayan foothills. The city is home to many historical and religious sites and natural beauty. Jammu is also known for its food, with many restaurants serving traditional Kashmiri cuisine.
There are many places to visit in Jammu, such as the Amar Mahal Palace Museum, Bahu Fort, and the Mata Vaishno Devi shrine. Jammu is also a good place to try traditional Kashmiri cuisine.
The Vaishno Devi temple is one of India’s most popular pilgrimage destinations. Located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, the temple is at an altitude of 5,200 feet above sea level. The temple is dedicated to the Hindu goddess Vaishno Devi, also known as the “Mother of the Universe.”
Every year, millions of devotees from all over the world visit the temple to seek the blessings of the goddess. The temple is accessible by a 13 km long trek from the town of Katra. The trek to the temple is considered very sacred and said to purify the mind and body of the devotees.
The Vaishno Devi temple is a very beautiful and peaceful place. The natural scenery around the temple is simply mesmerizing. The temple complex also has several small temples and shrines dedicated to other Hindu deities. Visiting the Vaishno Devi temple is a truly unique and unforgettable experience.
Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine:
Mata Vaishno Devi is one of the most popular Hindu shrines in India. It is in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, in the northern part of the country. Every year, millions of pilgrims from all over India and the world visit the shrine to pay homage to the goddess.
The shrine is situated at an altitude of 5,200 feet, in the Trikuta Mountains. It is a difficult and arduous journey to the shrine, but pilgrims undertake it with great devotion and faith. The journey to the shrine usually takes 3-4 days.
Pilgrims first visit the town of Katra, which is the base camp for the shrine. From there, they must trek through the mountains to reach the shrine. The last leg of the journey is the most difficult, as it involves a climb up a steep hill.
But the pilgrims are rewarded with the sight of the beautiful shrine situated in a cave. The goddess is worshipped in the form of a holy rock, which is enshrined in the cave.
Pilgrims offer prayers and make offerings at the shrine. They also take part in special puja ceremonies. After having the darshan of the goddess, they return to Katra, from where they begin their journey back home.
Forts in Jammu:
Jammu, located in the northern Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, has a rich cultural and historical heritage that is reflected in the many forts and palaces located in the region. Here are some of the popular forts in Jammu:
- Bahu Fort: Located on a hill overlooking the Tawi River, Bahu Fort is one of the oldest forts in Jammu. The fort was built by Raja Bahulochan in the 18th century and has been renovated several times over the years. The fort is now home to a temple dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali and is a popular tourist attraction.
- Mubarak Mandi Palace: Mubarak Mandi Palace is a historic palace complex that was built by Maharaja Gulab Singh in the 19th century. The palace complex is a beautiful blend of Rajasthani, Mughal and European architectural styles and is now a heritage complex that houses several government offices.
- Ramnagar Fort: Ramnagar Fort is a historic fort that was built by Raja Suchet Singh in the 19th century. The fort is located on the banks of the Tawi River and is known for its beautiful architecture and intricate carvings.
- Jasrota Fort: Jasrota Fort is a historic fort that was built by Raja Jas Dev of the Jasrota dynasty in the 17th century. The fort is located on the banks of the River Ujh and is known for its beautiful architecture and intricate carvings.
- Akhnoor Fort: Akhnoor Fort is a historic fort that is located in the town of Akhnoor, about 30 km from Jammu. The fort was built by the Mughals and was later occupied by the Dogra dynasty. The fort is known for its beautiful architecture and the stunning views of the Chenab River.
These forts are a testament to the rich history and culture of Jammu and are a must-visit for anyone interested in exploring the region’s heritage.
Parks In Jammu:
Jammu, located in the northern Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, is known for its scenic beauty and natural attractions. Here are some popular parks and gardens in Jammu:
- Bagh-e-Bahu: Located on the banks of the Tawi River, Bagh-e-Bahu is a beautiful garden that is known for its lush green lawns, flowers, and fountains. The garden is a popular spot for picnics and has a panoramic view of the city.
- Raghunath Bazaar Park: Located in the heart of Jammu, Raghunath Bazaar Park is a small park that is known for its manicured lawns and beautiful flowers. The park is a great spot for a leisurely stroll or a quick break from the bustling city.
- Amar Mahal Park: Located near the Amar Mahal Palace Museum, Amar Mahal Park is a beautiful garden that is known for its landscaped gardens, fountains, and a small pond. The park also has a small temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.
- Bahu Fort Park: Located near the historic Bahu Fort, Bahu Fort Park is a well-maintained garden that is known for its beautiful flowers and views of the Tawi River. The park is a popular spot for picnics and family outings.
- Gulab Singh Memorial Park: Located in the heart of Jammu, Gulab Singh Memorial Park is a small but popular park that is known for its landscaped gardens, fountains, and a statue of Maharaja Gulab Singh, the founder of the Dogra dynasty.
These parks and gardens in Jammu are great spots to relax, enjoy nature, and soak in the scenic beauty of the city.
Rivers in Jammu:
Jammu, located in the northern Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, is home to several rivers that flow through the region. Here are some of the major rivers in Jammu:
- Chenab River: Chenab is one of the major rivers in the region and is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers in the Himalayas. The river flows through Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab before emptying into the Arabian Sea.
- Tawi River: Tawi is a major river that flows through the city of Jammu. The river originates from the Udhampur district and flows through the Jammu region before joining the Chenab River. The Tawi river is known for its scenic beauty and is an important source of water for the region.
- Indus River: Indus, also known as the Sindhu, is a major river that flows through the northern region of India and parts of Pakistan. The river originates in Tibet and enters India through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Jhelum River: Jhelum is another major river that flows through the region. The river originates from the Verinag Spring in the Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir and flows through the Kashmir Valley before entering Pakistan.
- Ravi River: Ravi is a transboundary river that flows through India and Pakistan. The river originates in the Himalayas and flows through the Chamba district of Jammu and Kashmir before entering Punjab.
These rivers not only provide a source of water but also contribute to the natural beauty and biodiversity of the region.