William Gladstone – The Great British Reformer Who Introduced National Education and Secret Ballots
William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) was once as soon as the most efficient British reforming statesman of the 19th century. He was once as soon as Prime Minister of Britain three times.
Gladstone in the beginning supposed to turn into an Anglican clergyman alternatively, following his father’s advice, he took up politics. He entered the British Parliament in 1832 as a Conservative (or Tory). During the prime ministerships of Sir Robert Peel, George Hamilton and Lord Palmerston, Gladstone was once President of the Board of Trade (1843-45) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1852-55; 1859-66). During the ones latter categories, he set about decreasing tariffs and executive expenditure.
Careful husbandry of government monies will also be an ever-recurring theme in Gladstone’s political philosophy. “Finance is, as it have been, the the stomach of the country, from which the entire other organs take their tone,” he wrote in 1858.
In 1867 Gladstone left the Conservatives to turn into leader of the Liberal Party.
He was once Prime Minister for the principle time in 1868. In 1870 he established a gadget of national elementary training (a number one in British tutorial history).
He regarded as the British rule of Ireland as the cause of many evils and injustices for the Irish people over a period of centuries. He because of this reality disestablished the Irish Church (that is, the Anglican Church in Ireland), thereby reducing the facility of Protestant Anglicanism throughout the mainly Roman Catholic Ireland. He moreover passed the Irish Land Act, which made it harder for British landlords to evict their Irish tenants.
He undertook a scheme of parliamentary reform, bringing in secret ballots and extending vote casting rights to operating class males (the latter went far towards reaching commonplace male suffrage).
In his final two categories as Prime Minister, Gladstone tried to bring in Irish Home Rule, each different measure designed to complete centuries of British misrule in Ireland. However, as a result of Liberal Party splits, he was once as soon as defeated time and again on the Home Rule legislation that he tried to push through.
Even even supposing he did not prevail on this issue, he nevertheless believed that Irish Home Rule will have to come in spite of everything:
“We are positive to lose Ireland because of years of cruelty, stupidity and misgovernment and I’d rather lose her as a chum than as a foe.” (Gladstone as quoted in Margot Asquith’s 1933 e guide, More Memories.)
Gladstone’s magnificent file of Parliamentary achievements was once as soon as relatively tarnished by way of the lack of lifetime of General Gordon in Khartoum, Sudan in 1885 (an fit blamed on the failure of Gladstone’s executive to lend a hand the total in Khartoum and on Gladstone’s supposed disinterest in world affairs) and by way of Britain’s defeats throughout the First Boer War (1881).
On the subject of world protection, Gladstone indubitably had robust views which were incessantly at odds with the jingoism and imperialism of his day. For example, on Britain’s invasions of Afghanistan all through the Victorian generation, listed here are the eloquent words of Gladstone in an 1879 speech:
“Remember the rights of the savage, as we identify him. Remember the happiness of his humble area, remember the fact that the sanctity of existence throughout the hill villages of Afghanistan, some of the winter snows, is as inviolable throughout the eye of Almighty God, as will also be your own.”
(These words, written as they are in Victorian English, nevertheless keep painfully comparable all through the prevailing NATO intervention in in Afghanistan.)
Like his parliamentary arch rival, the Conservative Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone was once as soon as an excellent orator. He was once as soon as moreover a very good classical student.
Gladstone was once as soon as an individual of robust moral convictions, who, some say, acted further like a clergyman than a regular politician. These convictions – and thereby the achievements of his political career – have been primarily based on the bedrock of his profound Christian religious regulations.
William Ewart Gladstone left a powerful legacy, not simplest throughout the intensive legislation he proposed, promoted and passed, alternatively throughout the customized of additional democracy allied with further efficiency and the help of unnecessary executive expenditure.
way of David Paul Wagner