The Delhi Sultanate – Facts And History


The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim state that ruled parts of northern India from 1206 to 1526. It was founded by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori, who had conquered much of northern India.


Here are some key facts and historical events related to the Delhi Sultanate:

The first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate was Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who was appointed as the governor of Delhi by Muhammad Ghori in 1192. He declared himself sultan in 1206 after Ghori’s death.

The Delhi Sultanate was known for its architecture, particularly the construction of mosques and tombs. Some of the most famous examples include the Qutub Minar, the Alai Darwaza, and the tomb of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq.
The Delhi Sultanate was characterized by a series of dynasties, including the Mamluk dynasty, the Khilji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, and the Lodi dynasty.

The Khilji dynasty was known for its military conquests and expansion, particularly under the rule of Alauddin Khilji. He conquered large parts of India, including the Deccan region and parts of present-day Pakistan.

The Tughlaq dynasty was known for its administrative and economic reforms. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Muhammad bin Tughlaq, who introduced a series of ambitious but ultimately unsuccessful policies, such as the transfer of the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad.

The Delhi Sultanate faced frequent invasions from Mongols and other neighboring powers. The most significant of these invasions was the invasion by Timur in 1398, who sacked Delhi and caused widespread destruction.

The Delhi Sultanate declined in the 15th century, with the rise of regional powers such as the Vijayanagara Empire in the south and the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan. The Delhi Sultanate was finally conquered by Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, in 1526.


Rulers of Delhi Sultanate in chronological order:


Mamluk Dynasty (1206-1290):

Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206-1210)
Aram Shah (1210-1211)
Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (1211-1236)
Rukn-ud-din Firuz (1236)
Razia Sultana (1236-1240)
Muiz-ud-din Bahram (1240-1242)
Ala-ud-din Masud (1242-1246)
Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1246-1266)
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-1287)
Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad (1287-1290)

Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320):

Jalal-ud-din Firuz Khilji (1290-1296)
Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)
Shihab-ud-din Omar (1316)
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320)

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414):

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-1325)
Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351)
Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq II (1388-1389)
Abu Bakr Shah (1389)
Muhammad bin Tughlaq II (1390)
Mahmud Tughlaq (1390-1394)
Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1394-1412)
Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah (1412-1413)
Ala-ud-din Alam Shah (1413-1414)

Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451):

Khizr Khan (1414-1421)
Mubarak Shah (1421-1434)
Muhammad Shah (1434-1445)
Ala-ud-din Alam Shah II (1445-1451)

Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526):

Bahlul Lodi (1451-1489)
Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517)
Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526)


These are the major rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, but it is important to note that there were also a number of minor rulers and regional powers during this time period. the Delhi Sultanate played a significant role in the history of India, particularly in the areas of architecture, culture, and politics. Its legacy can still be seen in the many monuments and structures that survive today.




In conclusion, the Delhi Sultanate was a significant period in Indian history that had a lasting impact on the country’s culture, society, and politics. The Sultanate brought about significant changes in India, including the introduction of Persian language and culture, the spread of Islam, and the establishment of a centralized state with a sophisticated administrative system. The Sultanate also saw the emergence of great architectural and artistic achievements, such as the Qutub Minar, the Alai Darwaza, and the Ajanta and Ellora caves. However, the Delhi Sultanate was also marked by periods of political instability, warfare, and social unrest, particularly during the later years of the Sultanate. Despite its challenges, the Delhi Sultanate was a crucial phase in the evolution of India, and its legacy can still be seen in the country’s language, culture, and politics today.

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