Home History Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose (1897 – 1945) – Facts And History

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose (1897 – 1945) – Facts And History

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Subhash Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist leader and a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement. He was born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa, and died on August 18, 1945, in a plane crash under disputed circumstances.

Bose was known for his revolutionary ideas and fierce determination to fight against the British colonial rule. He is often referred to as Netaji, which means “Respected Leader” in Hindi. Bose completed his education in India and later went to England to pursue higher studies.

In 1921, Bose joined the Indian National Congress and rose through the ranks quickly due to his leadership skills and commitment to the cause of Indian independence. He was arrested by the British several times for his involvement in various protests and movements.

In 1941, Bose escaped from India and sought the help of the Axis powers to fight against the British. He formed the Indian National Army (INA) in Singapore and fought alongside the Japanese in the Burma campaign. However, his efforts were not successful, and he had to flee to Japan when the war ended.

Bose’s legacy as a nationalist leader and freedom fighter is still remembered in India today. He is regarded as one of the most influential figures in India’s struggle for independence, and his life and work continue to inspire many Indians.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Childhood And Family History:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa, to Janakinath Bose, a prominent lawyer, and Prabhavati Devi. He was the ninth child in a family of 14 siblings.

Bose received his early education in Cuttack and later attended the Protestant European School in Calcutta (now Kolkata). He excelled academically and was known for his sharp mind and excellent debating skills.

Bose was deeply influenced by the Indian nationalist movement, and his family had a long history of involvement in the struggle for Indian independence. His father, Janakinath Bose, was a prominent figure in the Indian National Congress and a close associate of other prominent nationalist leaders such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal.

Bose was deeply affected by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, which marked a turning point in the Indian nationalist movement. He was also influenced by the ideas of Swami Vivekananda and his call for a revival of Hinduism.

Despite his family’s wealth and social status, Bose was always deeply committed to the cause of Indian independence and worked tirelessly to achieve it. He was a true patriot who was willing to sacrifice everything for the cause of his country.

 

Education:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was an outstanding student and excelled in academics from a young age. He completed his schooling from the Protestant European School in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and then went on to study at Presidency College in Calcutta, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors in Philosophy.

After completing his studies at Presidency College, Bose went to England to prepare for the Indian Civil Service (ICS) examination. He enrolled at the University of Cambridge’s Fitzwilliam College, where he studied for the ICS exam. However, Bose was disillusioned with the British Raj and the injustices he witnessed during his time in England, and he decided to abandon his studies and return to India to join the Indian nationalist movement.

Despite leaving Cambridge without completing his degree or passing the ICS exam, Bose was a highly educated and well-read individual. He was deeply influenced by the works of great philosophers and thinkers such as Swami Vivekananda, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Karl Marx, and his intellectual curiosity and thirst for knowledge continued throughout his life.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose And Indian National Congress:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was an active member of the Indian National Congress in the early years of his political career. He was greatly influenced by the ideals of Mahatma Gandhi and worked closely with him during the non-cooperation movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Bose was a charismatic and passionate leader who was deeply committed to the cause of Indian independence. He rose quickly through the ranks of the Congress and was elected the president of the party in 1938.

However, Bose had fundamental disagreements with the Congress leadership on certain issues. He believed that the Congress’s policy of non-violent resistance was ineffective in achieving independence and called for a more radical approach. He was also critical of the Congress’s perceived dominance by upper-caste Hindus and advocated for greater representation of all communities in the party.

As a result of these differences, Bose resigned from the Congress in 1939 and formed the Forward Bloc, a political party that advocated for complete independence from British rule and the use of force if necessary.

Despite his break from the Congress, Bose remained a popular and influential leader in the Indian independence movement and continued to work tirelessly for the cause of India’s freedom.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose And Azad Hind Fauj:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s most notable contribution to the Indian independence movement was his formation of the Azad Hind Fauj, also known as the Indian National Army (INA), during World War II.

Bose believed that the best way to achieve India’s independence was through armed struggle, and he sought support from Japan and Germany to help him create an army to fight against British forces in India. With the help of the Japanese, Bose established the Azad Hind Fauj, which was made up of Indian prisoners of war and civilians living in exile in Japan.

The Azad Hind Fauj fought alongside Japanese forces against the British in Burma and India. Bose himself travelled extensively throughout Asia, rallying support for the Azad Hind Fauj and advocating for Indian independence.

Although the Azad Hind Fauj was ultimately unsuccessful in its military objectives, it had a significant impact on the Indian independence movement. Bose’s leadership of the Azad Hind Fauj and his efforts to secure foreign support for the Indian cause helped to increase international awareness of India’s struggle for independence and inspired many Indians to join the fight for freedom.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Contribution to the Indian Freedom Struggle:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose made significant contributions to the Indian freedom struggle, particularly through his leadership and advocacy for a more militant approach to achieving independence.

Bose was a charismatic leader who inspired and motivated many Indians to join the freedom struggle. He was particularly focused on the idea of “Purna Swaraj” or complete independence for India, and believed that the only way to achieve this was through armed struggle against the British.

Bose was a key figure in the Indian National Congress, and he worked closely with other leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi to push for Indian independence. However, he eventually split from the Congress and formed the Forward Bloc, a party that advocated for a more radical approach to achieving independence.

Bose’s most notable contribution to the Indian freedom struggle was his formation of the Indian National Army (INA), also known as the Azad Hind Fauj. The INA was made up of Indian prisoners of war and civilians living in exile in Japan, and it fought alongside Japanese forces against the British in Burma and India. Although the INA was ultimately unsuccessful in achieving its military objectives, it had a significant impact on the Indian independence movement by increasing international awareness of India’s struggle for independence and inspiring many Indians to join the fight for freedom.

Bose’s leadership and advocacy for a more militant approach to achieving independence helped to galvanize the Indian people and ultimately played a significant role in the eventual achievement of Indian independence in 1947. Today, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is remembered as a hero and patriot who dedicated his life to the cause of Indian freedom.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Escape From India:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s escape from India is a controversial and debated topic. In 1941, Bose was placed under house arrest by the British colonial authorities for his involvement in the Indian freedom struggle. However, he managed to escape from India in 1941 and went to Germany via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.

Bose’s escape from India is surrounded by many theories and conspiracy theories. Some believe that he faked his own death and went into hiding, while others claim that he was killed in a plane crash in 1945. Bose himself had expressed a desire to return to India and continue the struggle for independence, and he formed the Indian National Army to fight alongside Japanese forces against the British in Burma and India.

Despite the controversies surrounding his escape from India, Bose’s legacy as a freedom fighter and patriot remains strong in India. His leadership and advocacy for a more militant approach to achieving independence inspired many Indians to join the struggle for freedom, and his contributions to the Indian independence movement are still celebrated today.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s Death:

 

The death of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is a controversial topic with many different theories and perspectives. Officially, Bose died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945, in Taipei, Taiwan, while on a mission to seek support for India’s independence from Japan.

However, there are many who believe that Bose did not die in the plane crash and instead lived a long life in hiding, possibly in the Soviet Union or elsewhere. This theory is based on various pieces of evidence and eyewitness accounts that suggest that Bose survived the crash and continued to work towards India’s freedom.

In recent years, there have been calls to declassify secret files related to Bose’s death and his alleged survival, and to conduct further investigations into the matter. Despite the controversies surrounding his death, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose remains an iconic figure in India’s struggle for independence, and his legacy continues to inspire generations of Indians.

 

“Parakram Diwas” (Day of Valour):

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s birthday, January 23, is celebrated as a national holiday in India. The day is observed as “Parakram Diwas” (Day of Valour) to commemorate his contributions to the Indian freedom struggle.

The Government of India declared January 23 as a national holiday in 1977. On this day, various events and programs are organized across the country to pay homage to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and to celebrate his legacy.

In addition to India, the contributions of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose are also recognized and celebrated in other countries, including Japan, where he is regarded as a national hero.

Overall, the celebration of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s birthday as a national holiday in India is a testament to his significant contributions to India’s freedom struggle and his enduring legacy as a valiant leader who fought for justice and equality.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Awards And Recognition:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose has been posthumously awarded several honors and recognition in India and around the world. Some of the major awards and recognition conferred upon him include:

  • Bharat Ratna: In 1992, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was awarded India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, posthumously.
  • Padma Vibhushan: In 1954, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was posthumously awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India’s second-highest civilian award.
  • The National War Memorial, New Delhi: Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s statue has been erected at the National War Memorial in New Delhi, in recognition of his contribution to India’s freedom struggle.
  • The Indian National Army (INA) Museum: The INA Museum, located in Moirang, Manipur, showcases the history and achievements of the Indian National Army, which was led by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • Red Fort Trials: Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s famous trial at the Red Fort in Delhi has been recognized as a significant event in India’s history, and his portrait is displayed at the Red Fort.
  • International recognition: Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s contributions to India’s independence movement have been recognized by several countries, including Japan, where he is regarded as a national hero.

Overall, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s legacy continues to inspire people around the world, and his contribution to India’s freedom struggle is celebrated and recognized both in India and abroad.

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Files Declassification:

 

There have been several demands for the declassification of files related to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, particularly those pertaining to his mysterious disappearance in 1945.

In 2015, the Indian government announced the declassification of 100 secret files related to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, which were in the possession of various intelligence agencies and the Prime Minister’s Office. These files were declassified and transferred to the National Archives of India in New Delhi.

The declassified files shed new light on several aspects of Netaji’s life, including his attempts to seek assistance from foreign countries in India’s freedom struggle, his movements during his years in exile, and his mysterious death. The files also revealed the existence of several individuals who claimed to have met Netaji after his alleged death in a plane crash in 1945.

However, the declassification of these files did not put to rest all the controversies surrounding Netaji’s disappearance and death, and some individuals and organizations continue to demand the declassification of more files related to his life and work.

Overall, the declassification of the files related to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was a significant step towards unraveling the mysteries surrounding his life and legacy, and it has helped to renew interest in his contributions to India’s freedom struggle.

 

Books And Movies Dedicated to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s life and legacy have been the subject of several books and movies. Some of the notable works dedicated to him include:

Books:

  • “India’s Biggest Cover-up” by Anuj Dhar: The book presents evidence and arguments challenging the official version of Netaji’s death in a plane crash.
  • “Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero” by Salil Desai: This book tells the story of Netaji’s life and his role in India’s freedom struggle.
  • “Bose: The Indian Samurai – Netaji and the INA Military Assessment” by Maj. Gen. G.D. Bakshi: The book examines Netaji’s leadership of the Indian National Army and its military strategy.
  • “Subhas Chandra Bose: A Biography” by Hugh Toye: This book is a comprehensive biography of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

Movies:

  • “Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero” directed by Shyam Benegal: The movie is a biographical film on the life of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, starring Sachin Khedekar in the lead role.
  • “Bose: Dead/Alive” directed by Pulkit: The web series explores the mystery surrounding Netaji’s disappearance and death, starring Rajkummar Rao in the lead role.
  • “Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Last Days” directed by Lalit Verma: The movie depicts the last few days of Netaji’s life and his relationship with his family and followers.

Overall, these books and movies dedicated to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose provide a glimpse into his life, work, and legacy, and continue to inspire people across the world to this day.

 

Conclusion:

 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was a charismatic and fearless leader who played a significant role in India’s struggle for independence. He was a visionary and had a clear vision of a free India. His contribution to the freedom struggle is invaluable, and his ideas and principles continue to inspire generations of Indians.

Bose’s life was marked by many struggles and challenges, but he never gave up on his ideals. He had a firm belief in the power of unity and worked tirelessly to bring people together in the fight against British imperialism. His famous slogan, “Jai Hind,” still echoes in the hearts of Indians, inspiring them to work for the betterment of their country.

Despite his untimely death, Bose’s legacy lives on, and he remains a revered figure in Indian history. His life and work continue to be a source of inspiration for people across the world who strive for freedom, justice, and equality.

In conclusion, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was a towering figure in India’s independence movement, who left an indelible mark on Indian history. His life and work serve as a reminder of the importance of courage, determination, and sacrifice in the fight for a just and equitable society.