Royal Entrepreneurship – The Case of Royal Bank Zimbabwe Ltd Formation

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The deregulation of the economic services and products within the overdue 1990s ended in an explosion of entrepreneurial process resulting in the formation of banking establishments. This bankruptcy items a case learn about of Royal Bank Zimbabwe, tracing its origins, status quo, and the demanding situations that the founders confronted at the adventure. The Bank was once established in 2002 however compulsorily amalgamated into every other economic establishment on the behest of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe in January 2005.

Entrepreneurial Origins

Any entrepreneurial challenge originates within the thoughts of the entrepreneur. As Stephen Covey states in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, all issues are created two times. Royal Bank was once created first within the thoughts of Jeffrey Mzwimbi, the founder, and was once thus formed by means of his reviews and philosophy.

Jeff Mzwimbi grew up within the top density suburb of Highfield, Harare. On of entirety of his Advanced Level he secured a spot on the University of Botswana. However he made up our minds in opposition to the instructional course at the moment since his circle of relatives confronted economic demanding situations on the subject of his tuition. He subsequently opted to enroll in the paintings pressure. In 1977 he was once presented a role in Barclays Bank as probably the most first blacks to penetrate that business. At that point the banking business, which have been the keep of whites, was once opening as much as blacks. Barclays had a brand new General Manager, John Mudd, who have been concerned within the Africanisation of Barclays Bank Nigeria. On his secondment to Zimbabwe he embarked at the inclusion of blacks into the financial institution. Mzwimbi’s first placement with Barclays was once within the small farming the town of Chegutu.

In 1981, a yr after Independence, Jeff moved to Syfrets Merchant Bank. Mzwimbi, along side Simba Durajadi and Rindai Jaravaza, have been the primary black bankers to damage into service provider banking division. He rose in the course of the ranks till he was once transferred to the top place of work of Zimbank – the main shareholder of Syfrets – the place he headed the world department till 1989.

The United Nations co-opted him as an guide to the Reserve Bank in Burundi and thereafter, having been happy by means of his efficiency, appointed him a expert in 1990. In this capability he recommended at the release of the PTA Bank travellers’ cheques. After the consultancy mission the financial institution appointed him to move the implementation of the programme. He as soon as once more excelled and rose to develop into the Director of Trade Finance with a mandate of advising the financial institution on techniques to enhance industry amongst member states. The member states have been taking into consideration problems with a not unusual forex and not unusual marketplace consistent with the European style. Because the IFC and World Bank had unsuccessfully sunk gigantic sums of budget into building within the area, they have been advocating a transfer from building finance to industry finance. Consequently PTA Bank, despite the fact that predominantly a building financial institution, created a industry finance division. To craft a method for industry finance at a regional degree, Mzwimbi and his staff visited Panama the place the Central Americans had created a industry finance establishment. They studied its fashions and used it as a foundation to craft the PTA’s personal technique.

Mzwimbi returned to Zimbabwe on the conclusion of his contract. He weighed his choices. He may rejoin Barclays Bank, however fresh tendencies introduced an alternative choice. At that point Nick Vingirai had simply returned house after effectively launching a cut price home in Ghana. Vingirai, impressed by means of his Ghanaian revel in, established Intermarket Discount House as the primary indigenous economic establishment. A couple of years later NMB was once arrange with William Nyemba, Francis Zimuto and James Mushore being at the floor whilst probably the most primary forces at the back of the financial institution, Julias Makoni, was once nonetheless out of doors the rustic. Makoni had simply moved from IFC to Bankers’ Trust, to facilitate his possession of a economic establishment. Inspired by means of fellow bankers, a dream took form in Mzwimbi’s thoughts. Why develop into an worker when he may develop into a financial institution proprietor? After all by means of this time he had precious world revel in.

The above revel in presentations how the entrepreneurial dream can originate from viewing the successes of others such as you. The precious reviews received by means of Mzwimbi could be vital at the entrepreneurial adventure. An entrepreneurial thought builds at the reviews of the entrepreneur.

First Attempts

In 1990 Jeff Mzwimbi was once approached by means of Nick Vingirai, who was once then Chairman of the newly resuscitated CBZ, for the CEO place. Mzwimbi grew to become down the be offering since he nonetheless had some contractual tasks. The submit was once later presented to Gideon Gono, the present RBZ governor.

Around 1994, Julias Makoni (then with IFC), who was once a detailed buddy of Roger Boka, inspired Boka to begin a service provider financial institution. At this time Makoni was once running at putting in place his personal NMB. It is conceivable that, by means of encouraging Boka to begin, he was once looking to take a look at the waters. Then Mzwimbi was once seeing out the final of his contract at PTA. Boka approached him on the advice of Julias Makoni and requested him to assist arrange United Merchant Bank (UMB). On cautious attention, the banker in Mzwimbi accredited the be offering. He reasoned that it will be an enchanting choice and on the similar time he didn’t need to flip down every other alternative. He labored at the mission in order to its licensing however hand over 3 months down the road. Some of the strategies utilized by the promoter of UMB have been deemed lower than moral for the banking government, which resulted in confrontation. He left and accredited an be offering from Econet to assist restructure its debt portfolio.

While nonetheless at Econet, he teamed up with the overdue minister Dr Swithun Mombeshora and others with the intent of putting in place a business financial institution. The most effective business banks within the nation at that time have been Standard Chartered, Barclays Bank, Zimbank, Stanbic and an unwell CBZ. The mission was once audited by means of KPMG and had won the hobby of institutional buyers like Zimnat and Mining Industry Pension Fund. However, the Registrar of Banks within the Ministry of Finance, made inconceivable calls for. The timing in their software for a licence was once unlucky as it coincided with a saga at Prime Bank during which some politicians have been concerned, resulting in accusations of affect peddling. Mombeshora, after unsuccessfully looking to affect the Registrar, requested that they decelerate at the mission as he felt that he may well be construed as hanging needless political drive on her. Mzwimbi argues that the inconceivable stance of the Registrar was once the cause of backing off that mission.

However different assets point out that after the mission was once about to be authorized, the overdue minister

demanded that his shareholding be greater to some degree the place he will be the majority shareholder. It is said that he contended this was once because of his talent to leverage his political muscle for the issuance of the licence.

Entrepreneurs don’t surrender on the first signal of resistance however they view stumbling blocks in beginning up as studying reviews. Entrepreneurs expand a “do not hand over” state of mind. These reviews build up their self -efficacy. Perseverance is important, as failure can happen at any time.

Econet Wireless

The aspiring banker was once approached, in 1994 by means of a budding telecommunication entrepreneur, Strive Masiyiwa of Econet Wireless, to advise on economic issues and assist restructure the corporate’s debt. At that point Mzwimbi concept that he could be with Econet more than likely for most effective 4 months after which go back to his banking hobby. While at Econet it was obvious that, as soon as authorized, the key problem for the telecommunication corporate’s enlargement could be the price of mobile phone handsets. This introduced a chance for the banker, as he noticed a strategic choice of putting in place a leasing finance department inside Econet that will rent out handsets to subscribers. The expected 4 months to licensing of Econet dragged into 4 years, which encompassed a bruising felony combat that after all enabled the licensing in opposition to the State’s will. Mzwimbi’s revel in with service provider banking proved helpful for his position in Econet’s formation. With the explosive enlargement of Econet after an IPO, Mzwimbi assisted within the release of the Botswana operations in 1999. After that, Econet pursued the Morocco licence. At this level, the dream of proudly owning a financial institution proved more potent than the enchantment of telecoms. The banker confronted some tricky selections, as financially he was once smartly coated in Econet with an confident government place that will extend with the growth of the community. However the dream prevailed and he resigned from Econet and headed again house from RSA, the place he was once then domiciled.

His Econet days bestowed on him a considerable shareholding within the corporate, expanded his worldview and taught him essential courses in growing an entrepreneurial challenge. The patience of Masiyiwa in opposition to serious executive resistance taught Mzwimbi vital courses in pursuing his dream despite stumbling blocks. No doubt he learnt so much from the enterprising founding father of Econet.

Debut Royal Bank

On his go back in March 2000, Mzwimbi regrouped with a few of his pals, Chakanyuka Karase and Simba Durajadi, with whom he had labored at the final try at launching a financial institution. In 1998 the Banking Act was once up to date and a brand new statutory tool known as the Banking Regulations have been enacted within the mild of the UMB and Prime Bank disasters.

These required that one must have the shareholders, the premises and kit all in position ahead of licensing. Previously one wanted most effective to arrange an place of work and rent a secretary to procure a banking license. The licence will be the foundation for drawing near attainable buyers. In different phrases it was once now required that one must incur the chance of putting in place and buying the IT infrastructure, rent team of workers and rent premises with none assurance that one would achieve the licence. Consequently it was once just about inconceivable to ask out of doors buyers into the mission at this level.

Without recourse to out of doors shareholders injecting budget, and with minimum economic capability at the a part of his companions, Mzwimbi thankfully benefited from his considerable Econet stocks. He used them as collateral to get admission to budget from Intermarket Discount House to finance the beginning up – received apparatus like ATMs, employed group of workers, and leased premises. Mzwimbi remembers pleading with the Central Bank and the Registrar of Banks concerning the oddity of getting to use for a licence most effective when he had spent vital quantities on capital expenditure – however the Registrar was once adamant.

Finally, Royal Bank was once authorized in March 2002 and, after the prerequisite pre-opening inspections by means of the Central Bank, opened its doorways to the general public 4 months later.

Entrepreneurial Challenges

The demanding situations of financing the brand new challenge and the sooner disappointments didn’t deter Mzwimbi. The chance of the use of his personal assets, while elsewhere one would fund a vital challenge the use of institutional shareholders’ capital, has already been mentioned. This phase discusses different demanding situations that the entrepreneurial banker had to triumph over.

Regulatory Challenges and Capital Structure

The new banking rules positioned shareholding restrictions on banks as follows:

*Individuals may dangle a most of 25% of a economic establishment’s fairness

*Non-financial establishments may dangle a most of 10% most effective

*A economic establishment then again may dangle as much as a most of 100%.

This posed an issue for the Royal Bank sponsors as a result of that they had envisaged Royal Financial Holdings (a non-financial company) as the key shareholder for the financial institution. Under the brand new rules this would dangle most effective 10% most. The sponsors argued with the Registrar of Banks about those rules to no avail. If they had to dangle the stocks as company our bodies it intended that they wanted no less than ten firms, each and every conserving 10% each and every. The argument for having economic establishments conserving as much as 100% was once stunning because it intended that an asset supervisor with a required capitalisation of $1 million could be allowed by means of the brand new regulation to carry 100% shareholding in a financial institution which had a $100 million capitalisation but a non-banking establishment, which can have had a better capitalisation, may no longer keep an eye on greater than 10%. Mzwimbi and staff have been recommended by means of the Registrar of Banks to spend money on their non-public capacities. At this level the Reserve Bank (RBZ) was once merely concerned within the registration procedure on an advisory foundation with the primary accountability resting with the Registrar of Banks. Although the RBZ agreed with Mzwimbi’s staff at the want to have companies as primary shareholders because of the longer term life of an organization as in comparison to people, the Registrar insisted on her phrases. Finally, Royal Bank promoters selected the trail of satisficing- and therefore opted to speculate as people, ensuing within the following shareholding construction:

*Jeff Mzwimbi – 25%

*Victor Chando – 25%

*Simba Durajadi- 20%

*Hardwork Pemhiwa- 20%

*Intermarket Unit Trust – 2% (the one institutional investor)

*Other people – lower than 2% each and every.

The problem to procure institutional buyers was once because of the constraints cited above and the requirement to pump cash into the mission ahead of the licence was once issued. They negotiated with TA Holdings, which was once ready to take fairness conserving in Royal Bank.

So tentatively the sponsors had allotted 25% fairness for Zimnat, a subsidiary to TA Holdings. Close to the registration date, the Zimnat negotiators have been modified. The incoming negotiators modified the phrases and stipulations for his or her funding as follows:

*They sought after no less than a 35% stake

*The Board chairmanship and chairmanship of key committees – in perpetuity.

The promoters learn this to imply their mission was once being usurped and so grew to become TA Holdings down. However, looking back Mzwimbi feels that the verdict to unlock the TA funding was once emotional and believes that they must have compromised and located a approach to accommodate them as institutional buyers. This will have bolstered the capital base of Royal Bank.

Credibility Challenges

The primary sponsors and senior managers of the financial institution have been widely recognized gamers within the business. This lowered the credibility hole. However some company shoppers have been involved concerning the shareholding of the financial institution being totally within the palms of people. They most well-liked the financial institution chance to be lowered by means of having institutional buyers. The new licensing procedure adversely affected get admission to to institutional buyers. Consequently the financial institution had institutional shareholders in thoughts for the longer term. They declare that even the then head of supervision and licensing at RBZ, agreed with the promoters’ worry concerning the want for institutional buyers however the Registrar of Banks overruled her.

Challenges of Explosive Growth

The strategic plan of Royal Bank was once to open ten department places of work inside 5 years. They deliberate to open 3 branches in Harare within the first yr, adopted by means of branches in Bulawayo, Masvingo, Mutare and Gweru inside the subsequent yr. This would had been adopted by means of an build up within the selection of Harare branches.

From their research they believed that there was once room for no less than 4 extra business banks in Zimbabwe. A competitor research of the business indicated that the federal government managed Zimbank was once the key competitor, CBZ was once suffering and Stanbic was once probably not to develop hastily. The larger banks, Barclays and Standard Chartered, have been more likely to scale down operations. The promoters of the financial institution mission had noticed of their in depth world experie nce that every time the financial system was once indigenised in Africa, those multinational banks would cast off their rural branches. They have been subsequently positioning themselves to take advantage of this state of affairs as soon as it introduced itself.

The expected alternative introduced itself previous than anticipated. On a world flight with the Standard Chartered Bank CEO, Mzwimbi, showed his hobby in a stake of the financial institution’s disinvestments which was once making rounds at the hearsay mill. Although stunned, the multinational banker agreed to provide the 2 month previous entrepreneurial financial institution the appropriate of first refusal at the fifteen branches that have been being disposed of.

The deal was once negotiated on a lock, inventory and barrel foundation. When the announcement of the deal was once made internally, some workers resisted and politicised the problem. The Standard Chartered CEO then presented to continue on a phased foundation with the primary seven banks going via, adopted by means of the others later. Due to Mzwimbi’s savvy negotiating talents and the resolution by means of Standard Chartered to cast off the branches, the deal was once effectively concluded, leading to Royal Bank rising from one department to seven shops inside the first yr of operation. It had exceeded their projected enlargement plan.

Due to what Mzwimbi calls divine favour, the deal incorporated the true property belonging to the financial institution. Interestingly, Standard Chartered had didn’t get financial institution structures on rent and so in all small cities that they had constructed their very own structures. These have been thus transferred inside the deal to Royal Bank. Inherent within the deal was once an in-built fairness from the houses for the reason that acquire worth of $400 million was once closely discounted.

Shortly after that, Alex Jongwe, the CEO of Barclays Bank, approached Royal Bank to supply a equivalent deal to the Standard Chartered acquisition of rural branches. Barclays presented 8 branches, of which Royal to start with accredited six. Chegutu and Chipinge have been excluded, since Royal already had a presence there.

However after failing to cast off the ones two branches, Barclays got here again and requested Royal “to take them for a music”. Mzwimbi accredited those for 2 strategic causes, particularly the acquisitions gave him bodily property (the structures) that he may rent out to any person who made up our minds to extend into the ones spaces and secondly, that created a monopoly in the ones cities. With time, the fortuitous inclusion of actual property into the deal greater the wealth of Royal Bank as the costs of houses skyrocketed with hyperinflation.

One of the key key drivers of the Zimbabwean financial system is agriculture. After the failed Land Donors Conference in 1998 and the following land reform programme, it was once obvious to the established banks that business farming could be considerably affected.

They sought to hand over the small cities since their primary purchasers have been business farmers. Strategically to procure those branches when the key supply in their income was once underneath risk would have required that Royal Bank must have installed position an alternate income from farming. It isn’t transparent whether or not this have been thought to be all the way through those acquisitions.

The acquisition greater Royal’s department community to 20 and the group of workers supplement by means of 50. Incidentally, the expansion created issues of managing the gadget in addition to cultural problems. The extremely unionised Standard Chartered workers have been adverse to control as in comparison to the trusting Royal tradition. This acquisition ended in attainable tradition demanding situations. Management managed this by means of introducing Norton and Kaplan’s Balanced Scorecard gadget to be able to organize the cultural clashes of the 3 programs.

The Challenge of Financing Acquisition

A significant problem in acquisitions is the financing construction. During licensing the Registrar of Banks refused to simply accept the just about $200 million that have been spent by means of the promoters of Royal Bank as capital. She insisted that this be recognised as pre-operating bills and subsequently sought after to look contemporary capital amounting to $100 million. The trade of regulations posed a problem for Mzwimbi’s staff. However, being an astute deal maker he strategically conceptualised an association wherein the $170 million value of apparatus bought be accounted for as belonging to Royal Financial Holdings and made to be had to Royal Bank on a rent foundation. This would then be bought to the financial institution because it grew. The RBZ was once appraised of this determination and accredited it, or even famous within the inspection document the volume of expenditure spent pre-operatively by means of the promoters. The rest of the pre-operative bills have been transformed into nonvoting non-convertible desire stocks of Royal Bank.

In January 2003 business financial institution capitalisation was once greater to $500 million by means of the regulator and therefore there was once a necessity for recapitalisation. This coincided with the department acquisition offers. At this level the Royal Bank staff made up our minds to partly fund the purchase via a conversion of the desire stocks into extraordinary stocks and in part from contemporary capital injected by means of the shareholders. Since the financial institution was once now acting smartly, it bought the capital apparatus, owned by means of Royal Financial Holdings, which it have been leasing. This deal incorporated the redistribution and balancing of shareholdings in Royal Bank to evolve to the statutory necessities. Retrospectively it can be considered as a strategic blunder to have moved the apparatus into the financial institution possession. Considering the “sale” of Royal Bank property to ZABG, if those and the true property have been warehoused into RFH the take-over can have been tough. This highlights the failure on occasion by means of marketers to realize the significance of asset coverage mechanisms whilst nonetheless small.

However the RBZ accused the shareholders of the use of depositors’ budget for the recapitalisation of the financial institution. Partly that is because of a false impression that RFH is the conserving corporate of Royal Bank and so on occasion accounts flowing from Royal Financial Holdings have been accounted by means of RBZ investigators as Royal Bank budget. These allegations shaped a part of the allegations of fraud in opposition to Mzwimbi and Durajadi once they have been arrested in September 2004. Subsequently the courts cleared them of any fraudulent actions in January 2007.

Managerial Challenges

Retrospectively, Mzwimbi perspectives his managerial staff as being very good aside from some “weaknesses within the finance division”. He assembled a forged staff from more than a few banking backgrounds. The most important ones was founding shareholders like Durajadi Simba at treasury, the overdue Sibanda in control of the lending division. Faith Ngwabi-Bhebhe, then with Kingdom, helped lay a forged basis of human useful resource programs for the financial institution.

However, that they had a problem discovering a economic director. The new statutory tool required that CVs of all company officials be made to be had for vetting when the licence was once carried out for. Without a licence one may no longer promise anyone in present employment a role and put up his CV as this may mirror badly at the promoters. Eventually they employed a chartered accountant with out banking revel in. Initially they concept this was once a stop-gap measure.

With the unanticipated enlargement, they forgot to revisit this division to beef up it. Because of those weaknesses the financial institution persevered to stand demanding situations within the treasury division, in spite of the gallant efforts of the economic director. Strangely, when different government administrators have been arrested the FD was once left untouched and but the entire problems at stake arose from treasury actions. It would seem looking back that the FD was once intimidated into offering incriminating proof for the others. She too was once threatened with arrest.

Successful entrepreneurial ventures in a enlargement segment want each sturdy leaders and powerful managers. It’s no longer sufficient to have sturdy management talents. As Ed Cole stated, “It’s more straightforward to acquire than to handle.” The position of sturdy managers is to create the capability to handle what sturdy entrepreneurial leaders achieve. Interestingly a brand new box of study, Strategic Entrepreneurship now recognises the will for each entrepreneurial and strategic control competences for a hit ventures.

Strategic Growth Plans

Royal Bank’s strategic intent was once to create a complete home of economic services and products. The plan incorporated a business financial institution, a cut price home, an insurance coverage corporate, a construction society and an asset control provider. However the imaginative and prescient was once later delicate and the plans for a cut price home have been dropped, since a robust business financial institution with an impressive dealing room would serve the similar goal. A robust asset supervisor would additionally relieve the will for a cut price home.

With the numerous department community, the economic financial institution was once forged however wanted a presence in a couple of primary centres e.g. Masvingo and Gweru. In Gweru they might no longer find appropriate premises.

In Masvingo, after a combat they have been presented premises which had in the past been earmarked for Trust Bank. With Trust Bank going through demanding situations, it deserted Masvingo. However, Royal was once positioned underneath a curator when it was once about to transport in.

Royal Bank courted Finsreal Asset Managers for a possible acquisition since there have been synergies and shared ideals. It had a forged company buyer base and superb enlargement possibilities since an astute entrepreneur led it. Unfortunately the deal was once aborted on the final minute when the landlord opted out. After the Finsreal flop, Mzwimbi and his staff pursued the asset supervisor via natural enlargement. They evolved their very own corporate -Regal Asset Managers – all the way through the final quarter of 2003. At this level the capital necessities and licensing technique of asset managers was once moderately simple. Asset managers have been reasonably successful, with minimum regulatory controls. Regal Asset Managers finished two excellent offers, particularly: a control buyout of Screen Litho, a printing worry, and a large deal for First Mutual at its demutualisation.

The Screen Litho deal have been presented to challenge capitalists however their calls for have been over the top. That is when Regal Asset Managers was once arrange and concluded a investment deal via Royal Financial Holdings (RFH), leading to RFH conserving 99% of Screen Litho which was once to be off- loaded as soon as control was once in a forged economic place. Screen Litho is acting really well and therefore this funding has confirmed a hit. The entrepreneurial Mzwimbi thus diverse his economic portfolio via this deal.

For the construction society, Royal eyed First National Building Society (FNBS) and nearly signed a memorandum of settlement. Royal Bank was once nearly in a position to switch its group of workers loan facility to FNBS, when a detailed buddy with an impressive place within the Society discouraged it from committing to the deal with out divulging the explanations. A twinkling of an eye later FNBS was once positioned underneath a curator, with the RBZ mentioning circumstances of fraud by means of the highest executives. The increasingly more acquisitive Royal Bank marketers shifted and educated their weapons at Beverly Building Society. Intermarket had already didn’t consummate a maintain Beverley. Royal Bank was once now competing with African Banking Corporation (ABC), which beat it to an settlement however was once denied shareholder authority to finish the deal. Royal Bank then went again to wooing Shingai Mutasa of TA Holdings to be able to build up its institutional shareholder base. He was once prepared at the deal.

Mutasa was once conversant in the 2 British house owners of Beverley and one among his board participants sat at the Beverley Building Society board. His give a boost to would had been the most important within the deal. However this procedure was once overtaken by means of occasions, because the incoming RBZ governor superintended a financial coverage which led the economic sector right into a tailspin.

Some younger marketers approached Royal Bank in search of for give a boost to to ascertain an insurance coverage corporate. Since this was once consistent with Royal’s strategic plan it consented and helped get started Regal Insurance Company. Royal Bank originated the title Regal Insurance.

Once the licence was once received there have been some shareholder disputes and Royal Bank distanced itself from the deal. The younger marketers who have been supported by means of Royal Bank misplaced the corporate to the opposite shareholders.

The ultimate thrust within the strategic plan was once setting up a inventory broking company. An idiosyncrasy with inventory broking licences is that they aren’t issued to an establishment however to an individual. Intermarket had the easiest selection of inventory broking licences. Mzwimbi approached the Intermarket inventory broking CEO, who was once a chum, concerning the possibilities of obtaining probably the most stockbrokers and he didn’t appear to have an issue with that. At the similar time Victor Chando, a big shareholder in Royal Bank, delivered to the desk his hobby in obtaining Barnfords Securities. He was once inspired to pursue the maintain the assistance of Royal Bank with the plan of bringing it in-house once conceivable. All Royal Bank offers would now be channelled via Barnfords.

It seems that Royal financial institution evolved a robust urge for food for offers. One wonders what it will had been like if it had taken time to expand sturdy programs and capability ahead of making an attempt such a lot of offers. What will have been have shyed away from if the urge for food for offers have been managed? Entrepreneurs might want to workout restrain of their growth with a purpose to create capacities to take in and consolidate the expansion.

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means of Dr Tawafadza A. Makoni